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新托福词汇题(第二期)

2017年03月15日 09:41 供稿单位:G30 责编:孙薇
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摘要:新托福必考同义词转换(第一期),共50题

  001. Most of these leaders were involved in public life as reformers, activists working for women's right to vote, or authors, and were not representative at all of the great of ordinary women.
  The word "representative" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) typical
  (B) satisfied
  (C) supportive
  (D) distinctive
  002. In the United States, Louis Comfort Tiffany (1843-1933) was the most noted exponent of this style, producing a great variety of glass forms and surfaces, which were widely copied in their time and are highly prized today.
  The word "prized" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) valued
  (B) universal
  (C) uncommon
  (D) preserved
  003. The Art Nouveau style was a major force in the decorative arts from 1895 until 1915, although its influence continued throughout the mid-1920's. It was eventually to be overtaken by a new school of thought known as Functionalism that had been present since the turn of the century.
  The word "overtaken" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) surpassed
  (B) inclined
  (C) expressed
  (D) applied
  004. During most of their lives, surge glaciers behave like normal glaciers, traveling perhaps only a couple of inches per day. However, at intervals of 10 to 100 years, these glaciers move forward up to 100 times faster than usual.
  The word "intervals" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) records
  (B) speeds
  (C) distances
  (D) periods
  005. The increasing water pressure under the glacier might lift it off its bed, overcoming the friction between ice and rock, thus freeing the glacier, which rapidly sliders downhill. Surge glaciers also might be influenced by the climate, volcanic heat, or earthquakes.
  The word "freeing" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) pushing
  (B) releasing
  (C) strengthening
  (D) draining
  006. A flood of ice would then surge into the Southern Sea. With the continued rise in sea level, more ice would plunge into the ocean, causing sea levels to rise even higher, which in turn would release more ice and set in motion a vicious cycle.
  The word "plunge" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) drop
  (B) extend
  (C) melt
  (D) drift
  007. Group members look to instrumental leaders to "get things done." Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-being of a social group's members.
  The word "collective" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) necessary
  (B) typical
  (C) group
  (D) particular
  008. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties or is subjected to discipline, are quick to lighten a serious moment with humor, and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group.
  The word "resolve" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) avoid repeating
  (B) talk about
  (C) avoid thinking about
  (D) find a solution for
  009. Thousands of tons were extracted before 1875, when it was first noticed that the tar contained fossil remains. Major excavations were undertaken that established the significance of this remarkable site.
  The word "noticed" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) predicted
  (B) announced
  (C) corrected
  (D) observed
  010. Since then, over 100 tons of fossils, 1.5 million from vertebrates, 2.5 million from invertebrates, have been recovered, often in densely concentrated tangled masses.
  The word "tangled" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) buried beneath
  (B) twisted together
  (C) quickly formed
  (D) easily dated
  011. The asphalt at La Brea seeps to the surface, especially in the summer, and forms shallow puddles that would often have been concealed by leaves and dust.
  The word "concealed" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) highlighted
  (B) covered
  (C) transformed
  (D) contaminated
  012. The ocean bottom --- a region nearly 2. 5 times greater than the total land area of the Earth --- is a vast frontier that even today is largely unexplored and uncharted, until about a century ago, the deep-ocean floor was completely inaccessible, hidden beneath waters averaging over 3,600 meters deep.
  The word "inaccessible" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) unrecognizable
  (B) unreachable
  (C) unusable
  (D) unsafe
  013. The DSDP's drill ship, the Glomar Challenger, was able to maintain a steady position on the ocean's surface and drill in very deep waters, extracting samples of sediments and rock from the ocean floor.
  The word "extracting" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) breaking
  (B) locating
  (C) removing
  (D) analyzing
  014. Today, largely on the strength of evidence gathered during the Glomar Challenger's voyages, nearly all earth scientists agree on the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift that explain many of the geological processes that shape the Earth.
  The word "strength" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) basis
  (B) purpose
  (C) discovery
  (D) endurance
  015. For every three Canadians in 1945, there were over five in 1966. In September 1966 Canada's population passed the 20 million mark. Most of this surging growth came from natural increase.
  The word "surging" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) new
  (B) extra
  (C) accelerating  emerge
  (D) surprising
  016. When the prairies were being settled, undoubtedly, the good economic conditions of the 1950's supported a growth in the population, but the expansion also derived from a trend toward earlier marriages and an increase in the average size of families.
  The word "trend" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) tendency
  (B) aim
  (C) growth
  (D) directive
  017. After the peak year of 1957, the birth rate in Canada began to decline. It continued falling until in 1966, it stood at the lowest level in 25 years.
  The word "peak" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) pointed
  (B) dismal
  (C) mountain
  (D) maximum
  018. Although the growth in Canada's population had slowed down by 1966 (the increase the first half of the 1960's was only nine percent) , another large population wave was coming over the horizon. It would be composed of the children who were born during the period of the high birth rate prior to 1957.
  The phrase "prior to" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) behind
  (B) since
  (C) during
  (D) preceding
  019. Advocates of organic foods --- a term whose meaning varies greatly --- frequently proclaim that such products are safer and more nutritious than others.
  The word "Advocates" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) Proponents
  (B) Merchants
  (C) Inspectors
  (D) Consumers
  020. There are numerous unsubstantiated reports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones, that fertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs, that untreated grains are better than fumigated grains, and the like.
  The word "unsubstantiated" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) unbelievable
  (B) uncontested
  (C) unpopular
  (D) unverified
  021. But in many cases consumers are misled if they believe organic foods can maintain health and provide better nutritional quality than conventionally grown foods. So there is real cause for concern if consumers, particularly those with limited incomes, distrust the regular food supply and buy only expensive organic foods instead.
  The word "maintain" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) improve
  (B) monitor
  (C) preserve
  (D) restore  maintenance
  022. In addition, there were performers and since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task.
  The word "considerable" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) thoughtful
  (B) substantial
  (C) relational
  (D) ceremonial
  023. In addition, there were performers and since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task.
  The word "enactment" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) establishment
  (B) performance
  (C) authorization
  (D) season
  024. Staggering tasks confronted the people of the United States, North and South, when the Civil War ended. About a million and a half soldiers from both sides had to be demobilized, readjusted to civilian life, and reabsorbed by the devastated economy.
  The word "Staggering" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) specialized
  (B) confusing
  (C) various
  (D) overwhelming
  025. About a million and a half soldiers from both sides had to be demobilized, readjusted to civilian life, and reabsorbed by the devastated economy.
  The word "devastated" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) developing
  (B) ruined
  (C) complicated
  (D) fragile
  026. Some botanists hypothesized that the living cells of plants acted as pumps. But many experiments demonstrated that the stems of plants in which all the cells are killed can still move water to appreciable heights.
  The word "demonstrated" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) ignored
  (B) showed
  (C) disguised
  (D) distinguished
  027. As water is lost from the surface of the leaves, a negative pressure, or tension, is created. The evaporated water is replaced by water moving from inside the plant in unbroken columns that extend from the top of a plant to its roots. The same forces that create surface tension in any sample of water are responsible for the maintenance of these unbroken columns of water.
  The word "extend" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) stretch
  (B) branch
  (C) increase
  (D) rotate
  028. By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four times more distant from city centers than they were in the premodern era.
  The word "vast" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) large
  (B) basic
  (C) new
  (D) urban
  029. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas.
  The word "sparked" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) brought about
  (B) surrounded
  (C) sent out
  (D) followed
  030. Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting, real estate developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the Chicago region in just thirty years-lots that could have housed five to six million people.
  The word "potential" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) certain
  (B) popular
  (C) improved
  (D) possible
  031. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos.
  The word "outstanding" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) extensive
  (B) surprising
  (C) vertical
  (D) excellent
  032. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around Holzamden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time.
  The word "site" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) example
  (B) location
  (C) development
  (D) characteristic
  033. The quality of preservation is almost unmatched, and quarry operations have been carried out carefully with an awareness of the value of the fossils. But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.
  The phrase "account for " is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) record
  (B) describe
  (C) equal
  (D) explain
  034. In the seventeenth century the organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group, a supremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of the eighteenth century.
  The words "a supremacy" in line 9 are closest in meaning to
  (A) a suggestion
  (B) an improvement
  (C) a dominance
  (D) a development
  035. A series of mechanical improvements continuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction of pedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame, and steel wire of the finest quality, finally produced an instrument capable of myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almost orchestral fullness of sound, from a liquid, singing tone to a sharp, percussive brilliance.
  The word "myriad" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) noticeable
  (B) many
  (C) loud
  (D) unusual
  036. Each one was virtually a stone town, which is why the Spanish would later call them pueblos, the Spanish word for towns. These pueblos represent one of the Anasazis' supreme achievements. At least a dozen large stone houses took shape below the bluffs of Chico Canyon in northwest New Mexico.
  The word "supreme" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) most common
  (B) most outstanding
  (C) most expensive
  (D) most convenient
  037. They functioned as sanctuaries where the elders met to plan festivals, perform ritual dances, settle pueblo affairs, and impart tribal lore to the younger generation.
  The word "settle" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) sink
  (B) decide
  (C) clarify
  (D) locate
  038. Then, to connect the pueblos and to give access to the surrounding tableland, the architects laid out a system of public roads with stone staircases for ascending cliff faces.
  The word "ascending" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) arriving at
  (B) carving
  (C) connecting
  (D) climbing
  039. Within a very short time, however, the incongruity of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film.
  The word "solemn" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) simple
  (B) serious
  (C) short
  (D) silent
  040. Certain films had music especially composed for them. The most famous of these early special scores was that composed and arranged for D. W. Griffith's film Birth of a Nation, which was released in 1915.
  The word "composed" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) selected
  (B) combined
  (C) play
  (D) created
  The word "scores" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) totals
  (B) successes
  (C) musical compositions
  (D) groups of musicians
  041. The Earth comprises three principal layers: the dense, iron-rich core, the mantle made of silicate rocks that are semi molten at depth, and the thin, solid-surface crust.
  The word "comprises" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) adapts to
  (B) benefits from
  (C) consists of
  (D) focuses on
  042. These plates move over the semimolten lower mantle to produce all of the major topographical features of the Earth. Active zones where intense deformation occurs are confined to the narrow, interconnecting boundaries of contact of the plates.
  The word "intense" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) surface
  (B) sudden
  (C) rare
  (D) extreme
  043. New oceanic crust is formed along one or more margins of each plate by material issuing from deeper layers of the Earth's crust, for example, by volcanic eruptions of lava at midocean ridges.
  The word "margins" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) edges
  (B) peaks
  (C) interiors
  (D) distances
  044. If at such a spreading contact the two plates support continents, a rift is formed that will gradually widen and become flooded by the sea. The Atlantic Ocean formed like this as the American and Afro-European plates move in opposite directions.
  The word "support" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) separate
  (B) create
  (C) reduce
  (D) hold
  045. Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity, the number of species in a particular ecosystem, to the health of the Earth and human well-being.
  The word "appreciation" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) ignorance
  (B) recognition
  (C) tolerance
  (D) forgiveness
  046. An alien exploring Earth would probably give priority to the planet's dominant, most-distinctive feature-the ocean. Humans have a bias toward land that sometimes gets in the way of truly examining global issues.
  The word "bias" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) concern
  (B) disadvantage
  (C) attitude
  (D) prejudice
  047. The prevailing winds in the Great Basin are from the west. Warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean is forced upward as it crosses the Sierra Nevada.
  The word "prevailing" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) most frequent
  (B) occasional
  (C) gentle
  (D) most dangerous
  048. There seem to have been several periods within the last tens of thousands of years when water accumulated in these basins. The rise and fall of the lakes were undoubtedly linked to the advances and retreats of the great ice sheets that covered much of the northern part of the North American continent during those times.
  The word "accumulated" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) dried
  (B) flooded
  (C) collected
  (D) evaporated
  049. All living creature, especially human beings, have their peculiarities, but everything about the little sea cucumber seems unusual. What else can be said about a bizarre animal that, among other eccentricities, eats mud, feeds almost continuously day and night but can live without eating for long periods, and can be poisonous but is considered supremely edible by gourmets?
  The phrase "bizarre" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) odd
  (B) marine
  (C) simple
  (D) rare
  050. Its major enemies are fish and crabs, when attacked, it squirts all its internal organs into the water. It also casts off attached structures such as tentacles. The sea cucumber will eviscerate and regenerate itself if it is attacked or even touched; it will do the same if the surrounding water temperature is too high or if the water becomes too polluted.
  The phrase "casts off" is closest in meaning to which of following?
  (A) grows again
  (B) grabs
  (C) gets rid of
  (D) uses as a weapon

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